Access More Investment Choices
In a 401 plan, youre limited to the investment choices picked by your employer, usually a selection of mutual funds. If you roll over your 401 to an IRA, you may be able to expand your investment choices to include a broader range of funds, exchange traded funds or even individual stocks and bonds. Youll get more control over your portfolio, especially if you use a self-directed IRA, which allows you to invest money into more unorthodox assets like real estate.
Fewer Rules More Freedom
Every company has different rules and leeway in its 401 plan, making it difficult to understand and regulate. However, you can count on every broker following the same rules with an IRA because the Internal Revenue Service mandates standardized regulations. The IRS plays a different role with your 401: 20% of all distributions from a 401 must be withheld for federal taxes. Whereas with an IRA, you have the option to have no tax withheld when you take a distribution.
The bottom line is, if your employer sponsors a 401 investment opportunity, seize it! If you have money in a 401 from a previous employer, roll it to an IRA! Regardless of your circumstances, investing in your future is always a good idea. Learn more about all of your retirement investment options by visiting RitaUS.org.
What Tax Challenges Will I Face By Rolling Over An Rrsp Into An Ira
The problem with moving your money from a Canadian RRSP account to an American IRA account is the taxes you will face.
With various U.S. retirement accounts , you can initiate a direct transfer from one account to the other. You never touch the money during this process, so it doesnt count as income for the year and you dont have to pay taxes on it.
But because an RRSP is in a different country, you cant set up a direct deposit to transfer that money to a United States account. This means that when you withdraw the money from your RRSP, you will have to pay taxes on it as you would if you were withdrawing it under normal circumstances.
The trick is youll have to make a separate contribution to your IRA in the United States. Youll also have to pay taxes on that money again when you withdraw it from your traditional IRA in retirement. Essentially, current laws do not allow you to maintain the tax-deferred status between the two countries.
Related Article | 4 Ways To Reduce Your Taxes On Your Foreign Income
Recommended Reading: How Many Days To Rollover 401k
How Is Your Health
Does your family have a history of illness? If so, then taking the lump sum and rolling it to an IRA might be the most viable option. Whats the point of having an income for the rest of your retirement if you are only in retirement for a few short years?
I have a client whose never-married friend had worked for a company for almost 30 years. When that person retired, they optioned to take the annuity option and receive monthly payments. Just after three months of receiving their checks they unexpectedly passed away.
Guess what happened to the remainder of the pension benefit? It all went back to the company since they didnt have a spouse to pass it on to.
If they had rolled the pension into an IRA, they could have elected another family member to receive it or at least donated it to a charity or their church.
Option : Leave Your Money Where It Is
Usually, if your 401 has more than $5,000 in it, most employers will allow you to leave your money where it is. If youve been happy with your investment options and the plan has low fees, this might be a tempting offer. Before you decide, compare your old plan with any retirement plans offered at your new job or with an IRA of your own.
Your new employer-sponsored plan might have more limitations on it than your previous plan or other available options. Maybe there are fewer investment choices/options. Maybe it doesnt have an employer match or higher management fees. So youll want to look closely.
Also consider how often you tend to stay at jobs. If you change jobs every few years, you could end up with a trail of 401 plans at all the different places youve worked. Consolidating might be easier in the long run.
Recommended Reading: Can You Move Money From One 401k To Another
Not All Iras Are Created Equal
There are two types of IRA accountsa traditional IRA and the Roth IRA. There aren’t any tax consequences if you roll your 401 into a traditional IRA, which is funded with pre-tax money like a 401. There are tax consequences if you roll over into Roth IRA, which is funded with post-tax dollars.
Transferring funds from your 401 into a traditional IRA can be done directly by your retirement plan administrator. You can also choose to withdrawal your 401 funds and deposit them yourself in an IRA. In that case, you will have to do so within 60 days or else face tax consequences.
With a traditional IRA, you can contribute up to $6,000 per year or up to $7,000 if you are age 50 or older. Any amount you roll over into an IRA from your 401 or another IRA doesnt count towards the contribution limits. You dont have to pay taxes on the money in a traditional IRA until you decide to withdraw it.
Tax Consequences Of A 401
As mentioned above, you generally wont have to pay any taxes on your 401-to-IRA rollover. The only time youll have to deal with taxes is if you have a traditional IRA and want to roll over to a Roth IRA.
One other tax consideration: You can choose to do a direct or indirect rollover. For a direct rollover, your old plan sends the money directly into your new IRA. In an indirect rollover, your old plan sends you a check with the cash and withholds 20% of your funds. These withheld funds are a taxable distribution unless you make up the difference out of pocket. Youll likely have to pay a 10% fine for the early withdrawal. This rule only applies if the check is sent directly to you, though. It doesnt matter if your old plan sends you a check to forward to your new IRA.
Don’t Miss: Where Can I Start A 401k
Reasons You May Want To Wait To Roll Over Your 401
- Temporary ban on contributions. Some plan sponsors impose a temporary ban on further 401 contributions for employees who withdraw funds before leaving the company. You’ll want to determine if the gap in contributions will significantly impact your retirement savings.
- Early retirement. Most 401s allow penalty-free withdrawals after age 55 for early retirees. With an IRA, you must wait until 59 ½ to avoid paying a 10% penalty.
- Increased fees. IRA investors may pay more fees than they would in employer-sponsored plans. One reason: The range of more sophisticated investment options you may choose can be more expensive than 401 investments. Your advisor can help identify what extra cost a rollover may incur and if the benefits of the rollover justify those additional costs.
- Can take loans out. Your 401 may permit you to take out a loan from the account, but this is typically only for active employees. And you may have to pay in full any outstanding loan balances when you leave the company. You cannot take loans from IRAs.
When To Roll Over Your 401 To An Ira
Rolling over your 401 to an IRA is possible only if you’re leaving your current employer or your employer is discontinuing your 401 plan. It is an alternative to:
- Leave your money invested in your existing 401
- Rollover to your new employer’s 401
- Withdrawal from your 401, which would trigger a 10% penalty if you aren’t 59 1/2 or older
A rollover or IRA) does not have tax consequences. This would not be the case if you do a rollover to a Roth IRA.
Rolling over a 401 to an IRA provides you with the opportunity to choose which brokerage you want to hold your retirement funds. It may be the right choice if:
- Your new employer doesn’t offer a 401 plan
- You cannot keep your money invested in your current workplace plan because your plan is being discontinued or your 401 administration won’t allow you to stay invested for some other reason
- Your new employer’s 401 plan charges high fees, offers limited investments, or has other drawbacks
- You’d prefer a wider choice of investment options
However, there are some downsides to consider:
- While 401 loans allow you to borrow against your retirement funds, no such option exists with an IRA.
- Transferring company stock can be complicated account, read up on an “NUA strategy” that could save you a lot of money.)
If these downsides aren’t deal breakers for you, the next step is figuring out how to roll over your 401 to an IRA.
Also Check: Should I Do Roth Or Traditional 401k
Youre Retiring Between The Ages Of 55 And 595
You can take money out of a 401 without incurring an early withdrawal penalty once youve reached 55 years of age. The age limit for penalty-free withdrawals from an IRA account is 59.5.
Thus, if you retire between 55 and 59.5 you might want to roll over part of your 401 to your IRA to take advantage of the investment opportunities there while keeping part of the money in your 401 so you can withdraw it without penalty to pay for living expenses in the meantime.
Tax Withholding On Indirect 401 Rollover
When a 401 plan administrator writes you a check, the IRS requires them to withhold 20% of the funds as taxes. For example, if your funds total $40,000, the plan administrator will withhold $8,000, and write you a check for $32,000.
If you plan to deposit the funds into your IRA, you must make up the amount withheld, and deposit the entire amount within 60 days i.e. $40,000. After transferring the amount to IRA, the IRS will refund the 20% withheld amount when you file your annual returns. However, if you do not deposit the entire amount with 60 days, you will be required to pay income taxes, and an early withdrawal penalty if you are below 59 Â½ years.
Read Also: How Do I Find Out What My 401k Balance Is
Financial Strength Of Your Company
As I have mentioned before in a previous post Company is Going Bankrupt, What About My Pension, your pension is insured by the PBGC , but its only up to $54,000 and thats only if you retire at 65.
Over and above that, then you are out of luck. Any pension amount that is over the $54,000 limit will make the decision to take the lump sum more attractive.
Keeping The Current 401 Plan
If your former employer allows you to keep your funds in its 401 after you leave, this may be a good option, but only in certain situations. The primary one is if your new employer doesn’t offer a 401 or offers one that’s less substantially less advantageous. For example, if the old plan has investment options you cant get through a new plan.
Additional advantages to keeping your 401 with your former employer include:
- Maintaining performance:If your 401 plan account has done well for you, substantially outperforming the markets over time, then stick with a winner. The funds are obviously doing something right.
- Special tax advantages: If you leave your job in or after the year you reach age 55 and think you’ll start withdrawing funds before turning 59½ the withdrawals will be penalty-free.
- Legal protection: In case of bankruptcy or lawsuits, 401s are subject to protection from creditors by federal law. IRAs are less well-shielded it depends on state laws.
You might want to stick to the old plan, too, if you’re self-employed. It’s certainly the path of least resistance. But bear in mind, your investment options with the 401 are more limited than in an IRA, cumbersome as it might be to set one up.
Some things to consider when leaving a 401 at a previous employer:
The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 does protect up to $1.25 million in traditional or Roth IRA assets against bankruptcy. But protection against other types of judgments varies.
Also Check: What’s The Most You Can Contribute To A 401k
Cash Or Other Incentives
Financial institutions are eager for your business. To entice you to bring them your retirement money, they may throw some cash your way. In late 2021, for example, TD Ameritrade was offering bonuses of up to $2,500 when you rolled over your 401 into one of its IRAs. If it’s not cash, free stock trades can be part of the package at some companies.
When Changing Jobs You Could Keep Your Money In A 401 Put It In An Ira Or Cash Out
According to FINRA, you might be able to leave the 401 money in place in your former employers plan, which might be advantageous if that plan offers desirable returns.
Another option is to roll the money over to a 401 plan with your new employer, assuming the new plan accepts transfersand assuming you approve of the new plans fees and investment options.
The fourth option is that you could take the cash value of the 401, but FINRA warns investors that that course of action is costly. Between employer withholdings, early distribution penalties, and combined taxes, you might lose more than half of the accounts value by cashing out.
Also Check: Who Is The Plan Sponsor Of A 401k
How To Roll Over An Ira To A 401
Rolling over your 401 to an individual retirement account is common practice when starting a new job. But what about doing the opposite: moving IRA assets into a 401 plan? While not nearly as common, these reverse rollovers do exist and may be an option if youre an investor looking to merge multiple retirement accounts. When considering a rollover of any variety, it may help to work with a financial advisor who can guide you on your path to retirement.
Tips For Retirement Investing
- Consider finding a financial advisor to steer you in the right direction in terms of savings and investments. Finding a qualified financial advisor doesnt have to be hard. SmartAssets free tool matches you with up to three financial advisors in your area, and you can interview your advisor matches at no cost to decide which one is right for you. If youre ready to find an advisor who can help you achieve your financial goals, get started now.
- When youre starting to plan for retirement, you should consider the tax laws of the state you live in. Some have retirement tax laws that are very friendly for retirees, but others dont. Knowing what the laws apply to your state, or to a state you hope to move to, is key to getting ahead on retirement planning.
You May Like: How Do I Set Up A Solo 401k Plan
Should You Do A Partial 401 Rollover
It really depends on your financial situation and whether or not there is an advantage to leaving part of your money invested in the current 401. Just know that it is possible to move a portion of your money to a rollover IRA while keeping the rest of your money in the existing 401 plan.
Joshua Holt A practicing private equity M& A lawyer and the creator of Biglaw Investor, Josh couldnt find a place where lawyers were talking about money, so he created it himself. He knows that the Bogleheads forum is a great resource for tax questions and is always looking for honest advisors that provide good advice for a fair price.
Why Roll Over Your 401 Into An Ira
Moving your funds from a 401 to an IRA offers various benefits that you are unlikely to find in a 401 plan. While 401 are limited to a few investment choices like stocks and bonds, IRAs have a wider pool of investments ranging from EFTs, REITs, Certificates of Deposits, stocks, and bonds. This can help you create a diversified portfolio and have multiple income streams.
Also, IRA tends to be less expensive than 401 plans. Due to the limited investment choices in 401, you will have to incur higher costs in administrative fees, fund expense ratios, and management fees, which can reduce your overall return. While IRAs are not free of fees, the higher number of investment choices means you can pick investments with the lowest fees and exercise more control over how you invest.
Recommended Reading: How To Add Money To 401k
When You Leave A Job You Don’t Have To Leave Your 401 Behind
Thomas J Catalano is a CFP and Registered Investment Adviser with the state of South Carolina, where he launched his own financial advisory firm in 2018. Thomas’ experience gives him expertise in a variety of areas including investments, retirement, insurance, and financial planning.
A Tea Reader: Living Life One Cup at a Time
When you change jobs, you usually have four options for your 401 plan account. You can cash it out , leave it where it is , transfer it into your new employer’s 401 plan , or roll it over into an individual retirement account . For most people, rolling over a 401 cousin for those in the public or nonprofit sector) is the best choice. This article explains why and how to go about it.