Is There A 401 Withdrawal Penalty
If youre wondering how to cash out your 401, there are generally two main ways to access funds borrowing or withdrawing. Either way, the first step is to check with your plan sponsor to make sure learn what options are available to you.
Then, weigh your options to determine if borrowing or withdrawing funds works for your financial situation: Borrowing from your 401 requires repayment, within a set payback period . Withdrawing, however, means you withdraw a certain amount of money or cash out your 401 with no intention of paying it back.
While using 401 to pay off debt might seem like a quick way to solve the issue, there are some accompanying costs that might surprise you. For example:
Advantages Of Borrowing From A 401 To Pay Off Debt
The biggest advantage to using a 401 to pay off credit cards or other high-interest debt is the relatively low rate.
The interest rate on a 401 loan is fixed and significantly lower than outstanding credit card interest rates, says Centeno. It can be a smart decision and save a significant amount of interest.
Plus, because of the short time frame, you know youll be able to pay off the loan quickly, says Centeno, potentially faster than you would be able to otherwise. Additionally, depending on the policies associated with your plan, you might not have to worry about strict credit criteria. For some borrowers, its possible to get a lower rate than they would otherwise qualify for.
Just because there are advantages, though, doesnt necessarily mean using a 401 loan is a good idea.
Borrowing Against Your 401 Is It Ever A Good Idea
Many full-time and part time employees have the benefit of a company-matched retirement plan, referred to as a 401 for the part of the tax code authorizing it. These tax-deferred packages are the principal retirement vehicle for just over half of people in the United States. Americans put away about 6% of their pay in 401 plans to receive employee matching and tax breaks.
One feature many people dont realize about 401 funds is that the account holder can borrow against the balance of the account. About 87% of funds offer this feature. The account holder can borrow up to 50% of the balance or $50,000, whichever is lower, but the whole amount must be repaid within 5 years. Theres no approval process and theres no interest. Its basically a loan you give yourself, and is a popular enough option that 17% of millennial workers, 13% of Gen Xers and 10% of baby boomers have made loans against their 401 accounts.
Despite these benefits, borrowing against a 401 is a risky proposition. There are harsh penalties for failure to repay and taking money away from retirement savings is always risky. Borrowing from a 401 account should not be a decision that is made lightly.
As with most financial moves, there are benefits and disadvantages to borrowing from a 401. It can be difficult to sort through them, particularly if your need for money is acute and immediate. Before you borrow from a 401, though, ask yourself these four questions:
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Is Taking A 401k Loan A Good Idea
Taking a loan out on your 401k account is a much better option than withdrawing funds from your 401k. A 401k loan is managed through your employer and the retirement provider.
If you take a loan on your 401k, you are required to pay the loan back within a specific amount of time a predetermined interest rate, usually around 7%. By doing this, you are still in debt, but you are repaying the debt at a rate of 7% interest .
In addition to the repayment rate, you do not suffer a 10% penalty by taking a loan out on your retirement as you would pulling it directly out.
These loans are usually repaid out of your employment checks and do not allow you the choice to modify or neglect payment. By using this method, you are forcing yourself to live off less and hopefully, you will change your spending habits in the meantime. This still requires a great deal of focus from going back into .
Put Bonuses Towards Your Debt
Any time you get a monetary bonus, consider putting it towards debts. This could be a raise, yearly bonus, tax refund, or monetary gifts from your loved ones. You may have a set budget without this supplemental income, so act as if you never received it. Without budgeting for the extra income, you may feel less tempted to spend it.
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What Are The Costs Associated With 401 Loans
You may be able to avoid paying an early withdrawal penalty and taxes if you borrow from your 401 instead of taking the money as a distribution. But 401 loans have their own set of rules and costs, so you should be sure you know what youre getting into.
There are some appealing advantages to borrowing from a 401. For starters, if your plan offers loans , you might qualify based only on your participation in the plan. There wont be a credit check or any impact to your credit score even if you miss a payment. And borrowers generally have five years to pay back a 401 loan.
Another plus: though youll have to pay interest , the interest will go back into your own 401 account not to a lender as it would with a typical loan.
You may have to pay an application fee and/or maintenance fee, however, which will reduce your account balance.
Of course, a potentially more impactful cost to consider is how borrowing a large sum from your 401 now could affect your lifestyle in retirement. Even though your outstanding balance will be earning interest, youll be the one paying that interest. Until you pay the money back, youll lose out on any market gains you might have had and youll miss out on increasing your savings with the power of compound interest. If you reduce your 401 contributions while youre making loan payments, youll further diminish your accounts potential growth.
There may be similar consequences if you default on a 401 loan.
Better Alternatives To Cds
Any suggestions on where I can stash my cash in this scary economy? CDs are paying pitifully low rates, but at least they are FDIC-insured. — Gail Bjork, Hobe Sound, Fla.
With the average one-year CD paying just 0.39%, there are better places to keep your money without tying up your funds. That way, youll be able to switch to a higher-yielding alternative when rates eventually rise.
SallieMae Bank has a money market account yielding 1.10%. It has no minimum-balance requirement, no monthly fees and offers check-writing privileges — although you are limited to six withdrawals per month. Discover Bank is paying 1.10% on its no-fee, FDIC-insured savings account, which requires a $500 minimum deposit.
Some checking accounts are paying as much as 4.09% on balances up to $10,000 if you meet the qualifications, which include receiving your account statement electronically and making ten to 12 debit card purchases a month , plus one automatic payment or direct deposit per month. Look for high-yield checking accounts at www.checkingfinder.com.
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How Much Will The Withdrawal Delay Your Retirement
The other reason that using a 401k or IRA to pay off debt is a bad idea is that it can seriously delay your retirement. Instead of retiring at age 65, you may be forced to work a few extra years or keep a part-time job.
Its important to understand that youre not just losing the money you withdraw from the account, youre losing the growth you would have gained on that investment. Depending on how long it takes you to put that money back into the account, you could lose thousands or even tens of thousands in the interim. That puts you behind on achieving your retirement goals.
This impact is greater the older you are. So, lets say youre 60 when you make the 401k hardship withdrawal. Youd avoid the withdrawal penalties but still face tax penalties. At the same time, you have a very limited amount of time before you retire. It may be difficult to get that growth back, so you can retire on time.
Debt And Retirement Facts
Lets look at the facts. The average Social Security payment in 2016 is $1,341 which equals $16,023 per year. Very few individuals can live on Social Security alone, so its on you to shore up your finances for retirement.
If you have debt, whether its credit card debt, student loan debt or other, those payments are . Additionally, in most cases the interest rate youre paying on the debt is higher than the return you might expect on your retirement savings. For example, if you invest in a diversified stock index fund, with a projected 7% rate of return but if the interest rates on your debt payments are higher than 7%, you would be losing money if you chose to invest instead of pay off debt. Also, keep in mind .
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Are You Eligible To Withdraw Money From A 401
First, youll have to determine whether you are able to use your 401 savings to pay debt. Your plan administrator and the IRS guidelines are great resources but generally, 401 distributions are allowed if:
- You reach age 59 1/2
- You die, become disabled or are otherwise withdrawn from the workforce
- Your employer terminates your plan and doesnt replace it with another
- The distribution is related to a financial hardship
That last one is important because not all employers allow hardship distributions from a 401. Even if your plan does allow hardship distributions, you must demonstrate that the funds will address an immediate and heavy financial need. That includes things like:
- Paying medical expenses for yourself, your spouse or your dependents
- Purchasing a principal residence
- Paying tuition, educational fees or room and board for yourself, spouse or dependents
- Avoiding eviction or foreclosure
- Funeral expenses
Keep in mind that every employer is different. Even if your employer allows a hardship distribution, they may not recognize each of these scenarios. In most cases, you wont be able to contribute to your plan within six months of taking a hardship withdrawal.
Is A 401 Loan Right For You
Carefully consider before you get a 401 loan. If youre relatively young and can make up for the loss of time in the market later, borrowing this type of loan to pay off debt may help you get back on your financial feet especially if you fulfill the terms and repay yourself with interest.
You do need to be aware of the risks, however, especially if youre not sure youre going to stick with your current job for very long.
In some cases, they make a lot of sense, so theyre worth exploring as an alternative, says Centeno. But 401 loans can also be risky, so compare them carefully with other options.
- One-on-one evaluation with a debt counseling expert
- For people with $10,000 in unsecured debts and up
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Not Without Paying A Penalty If You Are Younger Than 59
Thomas J Catalano is a CFP and Registered Investment Adviser with the state of South Carolina, where he launched his own financial advisory firm in 2018. Thomas experience gives him expertise in a variety of areas including investments, retirement, insurance, and financial planning.
If you are over age 59½, you are free to use your 401 to pay for anything you like. If you are younger, you can still withdraw funds from your 401 to pay off college loans, but the IRS charges a 10% penalty tax on the amount of your withdrawal, in addition to any income tax that may be due.
However, you can borrow from your 401 instead of taking out a student loan, and there are a few ways you may be able to use retirement savings to pay for college expenses.
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Youll Pay Penalties And Taxes For Using Retirement Savings To Pay Off Debt
Every retirement accounta traditional IRA, Roth IRA, and 401has age distribution limits. That means some combination of penalties and taxes may hit you for early withdrawals.
|Account type||Early withdrawal costs|
|IRA||Youll get dinged with a 10% penalty on the full amount you withdraw, plus taxes at your current income tax bracket.|
|Roth IRA||Its important to distinguish between contributions and earnings for a Roth IRA. You can withdraw the former at any time and any age, tax- and penalty-free . If you withdraw earnings at any time, you must pay taxes on them. If you make a withdrawal before the account is five years old, youll pay a 10% penalty and taxes.|
|401||Youll pay a 10% penalty on the withdrawal plus taxes at your current rate.|
Lets say that you have $20,000 in credit card debt. What are the true costs if you withdraw from a 401 to pay it off?
The takeaway? Youll need to withdraw even more than you think to cover your debt and all the penalties and taxes.
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What Are Some Alternatives To A 401 Loan
When cash is tight, borrowing from your 401 plan and paying yourself interest may seem like a good idea. But before you borrow, weigh all your options. Here are a few.
Look Into Irs Payment Installment Agreements
In most cases, your best bet will be to set up an installment agreement plan with the IRS.
This offers the most flexibility and takes your current financial situation into account.
You and the IRS will come to an agreement about how much youre able to pay on your taxes now, the total amount of taxes you owe, and how long it will likely take you to repay those taxes.
Youll have to pay an application fee of $149 to get an installment agreement, however. Youll also be charged interest on the short-term federal rate, plus another 3% interest.
If you fail to pay, the IRS can and likely will terminate the agreement.
to get the form you need to apply.
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Why He Doesn’t Recommend You Do An Early Withdrawal
Looking back, Nitzsche says that liquidating his 401 to pay off credit card debtis something he wouldn’t do again.
“It is so detrimental to your long-term financial health and your retirement,” he says.
Many experts agree that tapping into your retirement savings early can have long-term effects. It can put you at risk later on in life when you are older, not working and would otherwise need to rely on those funds.
There are also short-term effects from making an early withdrawal from your 401 as well: It doesn’t come free. Doing so has costly consequences, including both a penalty fee and taxes. For borrowers 59½ years old and younger, there is generally an early withdrawal penalty of 10%, plus taxes, which can be anywhere from 20% to 25% depending on your income and tax bracket.
If you are someone who is cash-strapped during this time of uncertainty, tapping into your retirement savings is an option of last resort. “That really should not have been touched and not something we would usually advise somebody to do,” Nitzsche says.
When To Use 401k To Pay Off Debt
If you are struggling to pay debts, you may consider using your 401 to keep the debts under control. Find out when you can use 401 to pay off debt.
After years of hard work, you might have accumulated a nice nest egg, and you may be tempted to use some of it to deal with the piling debts instead of leaving the money untouched for your retirement. While it is a bad idea to tap into your retirement savings, there are certain situations when it makes sense to use your 401 to pay off debt.
You can use a 401 to pay off high-interest debts like credit card loans since it can reduce the interest you pay. If you opt for a 401 loan, you can drastically reduce the interest rate from 15% – 20% to below 5%, and you will be paying the principal and interest to your 401. Also, if you are on the verge of default, a 401 can help you avoid further fees, penalties, and prevent further damage to your credit report and credit score.
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