What Are The Penalties Assessed On Early Distributions
Because retirement funds are meant to stay in your account long-term, youll be penalized if you withdraw money before age 59½. Youll likely have to pay this amount on a traditional account, though you may not have to pay it on a Roth account.
There are also some exceptions to the early withdrawal penalty on traditional IRAs and on 401 accounts.
You can withdraw any contributions from your Roth account without paying taxes or penalties. However, if you want to withdraw earnings, penalties and taxes may be assessed. This depends on how long youve held the account and the purpose of the distribution. For more details, check out these Roth IRA withdrawal rules and understand the same will apply for Roth 401s.
Alternatives To A 401 Loan
Although 401 borrowing has some advantages, including not having to jump through hoops for a commercial loan or undergoing a check of your credit score, there are downsides that discourage many would-be borrowers from using their retirement money in the present. Here are a few:
- Tax penalty for not repaying the loan on schedule.
- Loss of growth. 401 money could be invested in a mutual fund and grow tax free for many years until you retire. Money borrowed doesnt grow, and the loss of compounding growth can make a big difference in your older years.
- You could get in the habit of using your 401 as a piggy bank, defeating its value as a savings tool.
- While you are paying back what you borrowed, you might not have the money to add to your account, further reducing its future value.
- 401 accounts are protected in bankruptcy. If you borrow money to help pay off a big debt and then discover that you still cant avoid bankruptcy, you will lose whatever you withdrew. Not touching the 401 safeguards the money for your retirement.
After considering the drawbacks, many would-be 401 borrowers decide to look elsewhere for the money they need. Here are a few options:
Loans To Purchase A Home
Regulations require 401 plan loans to be repaid on an amortizing basis over not more than five years unless the loan is used to purchase a primary residence. Longer payback periods are allowed for these particular loans. The IRS doesn’t specify how long, though, so it’s something to work out with your plan administrator. And ask whether you get an extra year because of the CARES bill.
Also, remember that CARES extended the amount participants can borrow from their plans to $100,000. Previously, the maximum amount that participants may borrow from their plan is 50% of the vested account balance or $50,000, whichever is less. If the vested account balance is less than $10,000, you can still borrow up to $10,000.
Borrowing from a 401 to completely finance a residential purchase may not be as attractive as taking out a mortgage loan. Plan loans do not offer tax deductions for interest payments, as do most types of mortgages. And, while withdrawing and repaying within five years is fine in the usual scheme of 401 things, the impact on your retirement progress for a loan that has to be paid back over many years can be significant.
If you do need a sizable sum to purchase a house and want to use 401 funds, you might consider a hardship withdrawal instead of, or in addition to, the loan. But you will owe income tax on the withdrawal and, if the amount is more than $10,000, a 10% penalty as well.
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Before You Take Cash From Your 401k Make Sure You Can Answer These Questions
The following questions need to be answered before you decide to pull from your 401k:
To answer these questions, lets look at some hypothetical examples. In sticking with our earlier $40,000 withdrawal, lets be optimistic and assume it only takes you 5 years to replenish your fund. In that amount of time, if your $40,000 investment made the historical 8% return from the stock market, it would have grown to $58,773.12.
So in theory, to get back to where you would have been after 5 years, you would need to contribute an extra $18,773.12, or $58,773.12, in that amount of time. If you were only able to contribute the $40,000 back into your account, that $40,000 withdrawal just cost you about $19,000 over five years!
Keep in mind that by taking out the $40,000 from your account, after the penalty you only received $36,000. So if we want to get into semantics, you threw $4,000 out the window as well.
Are you starting to see how big of an impact taking from your retirement is?
If you are familiar with compound interest, you are familiar with the snowball effect. The more money you have in your retirement account, the faster it grows. Taking money out slows down your snowball considerably.
What To Know If You Want To Take The 401 Loan
It is important to completely understand the rules of taking a loan from your retirement fund before you make that decision. For instance, how much can you take out? Rules may differ per plan, but its often around 50 percent of your vested balance with a max of $50,000. Youll probably be required to repay the loan in full if you leave your job. You should also know the interest rates and approximately how long you have to repay the loan.
Another big factor at play: creditor protection. Retirement accounts and pensions often come with creditor protection unless the creditor is a government entity such as the IRS. If you think youre at all at risk of filing for bankruptcy, do not raid your retirement account to pay off debt.
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How Long Do You Have To Repay A 401 Loan
Generally, you have up to five years to repay a 401 loan, although the term may be longer if youre using the money to buy your principal residence. IRS guidance says that loans should be repaid in substantially equal payments that include principal and interest and that are paid at least quarterly. Your plan may also allow you to repay your loan through payroll deductions.
The CARES Act allows plan sponsors to provide qualified borrowers with up to an additional year to pay off their 401 loans.
The interest rate youll pay on the loan is typically determined by the plan administrator based on the current prime rate, but it and the repayment schedule should be similar to what you might expect to receive from a bank loan. Also, the interest isnt paid to a lender since youre borrowing your own money, the interest you pay is added to your own 401 account.
What Is A 401 Plan
For many Americans with a part-time or full-time job, an employer-sponsored 401 plan is one of the best ways to save for retirement.
This type of retirement plan offers tax benefits that can help you save money over time while saving and investing for retirement. Even better, many employers match employee contributions, which can supercharge your retirement account savings rate and help you build a financial plan for the future.
How do they do this?
401 plans allow you to save and invest with pre-tax dollars. That means you dont pay any income taxes on those funds the year of your contribution.
Instead, you pay taxes on withdrawals in the future when you’re in retirement. Most people have a lower income and lower tax rate in retirement, so this can save you money while giving you an incentive to save more for retirement and help you reach your financial goals.
To withdraw from a 401 without the 10% withdrawal penalty, you have to wait until youre at least 59 ½ years old. Thats a big part of why you shouldnt withdraw 401 funds to pay off your credit cards.
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The Bottom Line On Borrowing Against A 401 To Pay Off Credit Cards
Taking out a 401 loan can be a flexible and affordable option for paying off credit card debt. Still, if youre going to go this route, its best to proceed with caution. At a minimum, youre going to want to take some time to reflect on your financial attitude and spending habits. Once you borrow against your retirement account to pay off debt, its a good idea to examine your budget and spending habits regularly. Doing so can help you avoid ending up with debts that feel overwhelming.
If you have more questions about ways that you can consolidate your debts, call us at 890-7337 or fill out our short contact form. Well be in touch with more information about how we can help you.
Is Borrowing From A 401 To Pay Off Debt Possible
First and foremost, yes, it is possible to borrow from a 401 to pay off debt. The question is whether or not it is advisable to do so. Typically, your retirement savings should stay in your account until you are old enough to start taking regular distributions. Spending the money before youve reached retirement age may leave you short in your golden years.
In light of that, if you are considering borrowing money from a retirement account to pay off debt, its a good idea to talk to an advisor about your financial goals first. They may recommend temporarily pausing retirement contributions and using the extra income to pay down your debts rather than taking money out of your account. However, the decision is yours to make.
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Factors To Consider Before Putting Your Money To Work
Joyce Chan / The Balance
If youve got debt, youre not alone. Nationally, household non-housing debt is at the highest level since 2008. Housing debt is a bit higher than it was in 2009, toward the end of the Great Recession. Should you strive to reduce your share of that credit card, student loan, and housing debt, or place your money in a retirement savings account or other investments? The answer is: You should do both.
But lets look at the factors that go into prioritizing investing versus debt payoff, with the help of two experts.
Is There A 401 Withdrawal Penalty
If youre wondering how to cash out your 401, there are generally two main ways to access funds borrowing or withdrawing. Either way, the first step is to check with your plan sponsor to make sure learn what options are available to you.
Then, weigh your options to determine if borrowing or withdrawing funds works for your financial situation: Borrowing from your 401 requires repayment, within a set payback period . Withdrawing, however, means you withdraw a certain amount of money or cash out your 401 with no intention of paying it back.
While using 401 to pay off debt might seem like a quick way to solve the issue, there are some accompanying costs that might surprise you. For example:
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Alternatives To 401k Loans To Consolidate Credit Card Debt
Before you decide on using your 401 to consolidate your credit card debt, you should weigh the following alternatives.
Debt Settlement– If you can’t afford the payment for the other solutions and the concerns about 401 make it too risky for you, look at a debt settlement program to help you get out of debt.
Debt Navigator– The Bills.com Debt Navigator is a free tool that recommends a debt solution based on priorities and goals you provide. There is no effect on your credit from using the tool, which you can find below.
Not Without Paying A Penalty If You Are Younger Than 59
Thomas J Catalano is a CFP and Registered Investment Adviser with the state of South Carolina, where he launched his own financial advisory firm in 2018. Thomas’ experience gives him expertise in a variety of areas including investments, retirement, insurance, and financial planning.
If you are over age 59½, you are free to use your 401 to pay for anything you like. If you are younger, you can still withdraw funds from your 401 to pay off college loans, but the IRS charges a 10% penalty tax on the amount of your withdrawal, in addition to any income tax that may be due.
However, you can borrow from your 401 instead of taking out a student loan, and there are a few ways you may be able to use retirement savings to pay for college expenses.
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The Pros And Cons Of 401 Loan For Debt Consolidation
Given the tax implications of taking an early withdrawal from your retirement account, most people choose to use a 401 loan for debt consolidation instead. With that in mind, there are some pros and cons of using a 401 loan for debt consolidation. Read on to learn if this debt payoff method will work for you,
Taking Money Out Of A 401 Pay Debt: Does It Make Sense
To determine whether withdrawing from your 401 makes sense, crunch the numbers. Compare the interest rate on your debt with the tax penalties you would face. High interest rates on significant debt may necessitate drastic measures. If youre considering a 401 loan, make sure you have a disciplined financial plan. 401 loans can also be a powerful option for eliminating high-interest debt, but they can still set you back.
Be honest about where you stand, too. If you have a relatively large starting balance, using your plan might not make a huge difference in the long run. If youre already behind on saving, however, taking money from your 401 could create a big problem come retirement. There is also an emotional element to borrowing against your retirement. Once you tap those funds, it could be tempting to do it again.
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Should I Borrow From My 401k Account To Pay Off Debt
An argument for borrowing from your 401k is to eliminate a large debt with a high-interest rate. Say for instance your $40,000 debt is on a credit card at 16% interest. On the outside, it may seem like a no-brainer to forfeit the 8% a year on your investment instead of paying 16% interest on that debt.
Evaluate All Your Options For Paying Down Debt
If youre in dire need to pay off your debts, look into other accounts like your savings or emergency fund. While money saved can help in times of need, your financial situation may be an emergency. To save on early withdrawal taxes and fees, you can borrow from savings accounts. To cover future emergency expenses, avoid draining your savings accounts entirely.
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When To Use Your 401 To Pay Off Debt
You should only withdraw from your 401 to pay off debt in extreme circumstances. Using a withdrawal to pay off a low interest home mortgage or student loans does not make financial sense due to penalty fees and taxes.
However, you might consider making a withdrawal to pay off loans or credit card debt with a high interest rate . Youll have to do some math before you decide whether or not its worth it. Keep this in mind, not only are withdrawal penalties and taxes a large expense, but any money you take from your 401 means less money saved for retirement.
Is Taking A 401k Loan A Good Idea
Taking a loan out on your 401k account is a much better option than withdrawing funds from your 401k. A 401k loan is managed through your employer and the retirement provider.
If you take a loan on your 401k, you are required to pay the loan back within a specific amount of time a predetermined interest rate, usually around 7%. By doing this, you are still in debt, but you are repaying the debt at a rate of 7% interest .
In addition to the repayment rate, you do not suffer a 10% penalty by taking a loan out on your retirement as you would pulling it directly out.
These loans are usually repaid out of your employment checks and do not allow you the choice to modify or neglect payment. By using this method, you are forcing yourself to live off less and hopefully, you will change your spending habits in the meantime. This still requires a great deal of focus from going back into .
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Withdrawals After Age 59
Once you have reached age 59½, you are no longer subject to the 10% penalty, although you will still have to pay income tax on your withdrawals in the case of a traditional 401. If your 401 is a designated Roth 401, and youve had it for at least five years, then your withdrawals will be tax-free.
Using the same example as above, a $45,000 withdrawal from your traditional 401 would cost you $10,800 in tax, leaving you with $34,200.
With a Roth 401, you would have the full $45,000 to pay off your debts.
Of course, with either type of 401, you would have that much less money saved for retirement.