Capitalizing Your New Startup
With your seed money now in hand because of your 401 business financing, youre ready to capitalize your new startup. You can use funds for working capital, business acquisition, paying employees or even as a down payment for additional financing the IRS sets no limits on the use of ROBS funds, with the exception that they cannot be used for your personal expenses that only benefit you.
How To Use Your 401k To Fund Your Business
Invest in yourself to the point that it makes someone else want to invest in you.-Tony Gaskins
Some people know early on that entrepreneurship is their calling. For others, they make the transition to business ownership later in life. No matter when you decide to take control of your destiny, determining how you will fund the realization of your dreams can be challenging and stressful. Obtaining the money to bring your visions to life is somewhat of a rite of passage. At the BLOQ parq , we also checked this necessary item off of our list. While its true that getting your hands on that mean green is a necessity, how you make it happen can have a significant impact on the future of your business.
Use A 401 Business Loan To Finance A Business
If youre looking into using a 401 to start a businessâor finance an existing oneâyou might consider getting a 401 business loan, especially if you need less than $50,000 in financing and plan to stay employed for the time being. What is a 401 loan?
If your 401 or other eligible retirement plan allows loans, then the IRS permits you to borrow up to half of your vested balance, or $50,000âwhichever is less. This amount you borrow, therefore, is your 401 loan, which can be used for any eligible purpose, including business purposes. With this loan, you will be charged interest, however, since youre borrowing from your retirement plan, youre actually paying the principal and interest back to yourself.
The key with this type of 401 business financing, though, is that you have to remain employed and enrolled in your employer-sponsored retirement plan while the loan is outstanding. If you lose your job or decide to leave, youll have to pay back the full loan within two months. This being said, for most entrepreneurs, a 401 loan isnt practical unless theyre considering starting a business as a side gig for a while. In fact, most people use 401 loans not for business, but for personal expenses, such as medical bills or home renovation costs.
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Implications Of Withdrawing From A Traditional 401 Or Ira
Cashing out your 401 before age 59 1/2 can generate a lot of tax liability and penalties. Contributions made to 401 and IRA accounts are made from pretax income. Taxes are charged not in the year you contribute funds, but in the year you withdraw funds. There are exceptions to the 10% penalty that you may qualify for in either a 401 or IRA cash out, but they are not related to starting or buying a business.
These exceptions include:
- Certain medical expenses
- Financial hardship as defined by the IRS
When you cash out your 401, you will have to pay both federal and state taxes on the amount you withdraw as gross income for the year. This could also adjust the tax bracket you fall into. When you withdraw funds, your plan administrator will withhold 20% of the funds and send it to the IRS to cover your federal taxes.
On top of taxes, you will also have to pay a 10% penalty for withdrawing funds before retirement age . This yields an initial 30% in taxes and penalties, with the potential for additional tax liability at year-end.
Before Cracking Your Nest Egg
Here are some tips on what to consider before dipping into retirement funds to open a business.
Plan ahead. If you have a mortgage, make sure you have six months of mortgage money reserved, in addition to emergency money, Mr. Toriano said.
Start small. You should take a small bite at first, like a trial run, Mr. Toriano said. Ms. Edwardss start in the church parking lot before moving to Tropicana Field is an example.
Make sure youve found a niche. Your idea should be very innovative, or something thats needed, like a bakery in a town that has no bakery, Mr. Toriano said.
Consider the best-case and worst-case scenarios. The worst feeling is often the unknown, so take the time to consider how bad it might get if a new business fails, Mr. Damsky said. The result could actually be peace of mind.
Mr. Damsky recommends a backup plan that includes returning to work for a few years if the new business doesnt pan out.
Do the math. Remember, if you dip into a 401 before age 59½, you could owe taxes and penalties on the money, in addition to losing out on the potential investment interest gains you could have made by leaving the money there.
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How Robs Actually Works
In order to make use of ROBS, youll have to take several important steps. The first typically involves creating a new business as a C corporation. That C corporation will then create a new 401 plan, and the funds from your previous 401, IRA, or other tax-deferred retirement account will be rolled into the new corporations 401. Next, the 401 will buy stock in the C corporation, providing it with cash that can be used for your SBA loan downpayment. Since the process can be somewhat complex, youll likely want to use a third-party ROBS consultant or advisor to help guide you through it with as few delays as possible.
Should You Use Your Investments To Pay For School
Joe Buhrmann, a CFP and senior financial planning consultant at Fidelity’seMoney Advisor, suggests that if the student loan interest rate especially if it’s a federal student loan is low and attractive, it may make more sense to retain your investments and instead borrow the funds to pay for school. In this case, your rate of return in the market is likely going to be higher than the interest rate you’d pay on your student loans.
Cannon wants investors to keep in mind that the markets over the last 20 years, which experienced two significant -50% bear markets, have averaged gains of 8%+ per year . “As a general rule, especially in this low-interest-rate environment, it is not a good idea to cash in investments to pay for school or pay off school debt, especially for younger investors who have a 10-plus year time horizon until they need access to their funds,” he says.
Let’s use a hypothetical example to see how this could play out. Say you need $10,000 to pay for credits in your last year of grad school, and you are deciding whether to take out a student loan or to tap into your investments to finance this expense.
If you left that $10,000 in the stock market, with the average 8% annual return Cannon identifies, after 10 years that investment would grow to be worth $21,589 .
Meanwhile, the $10,000 federal student loan you would take out, on a 10-year standard repayment plan with an annual interest rate of 5.28% , would end up costing a total of $12,893 after 10 years .
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How To Finance Your Business With A 401
Would-be business owners can take advantage of something called ROBS or rollovers as business start-ups. Through ROBS, you can use your 401 to fund a business without paying taxes or penalties.
While that may sound great, setting yourself up with ROBS is complicated. You need to form a C Corporation and then create a new retirement plan under your business. After that, you need to transfer funds to your account. Once youve done that, your retirement funds will buy stock in the corporation.
At that point, you can use the funds to invest in your business. On top of that, you typically need the help of an attorney or a CPA to facilitate the process, which can add up.
As you can see, the process isnt necessarily simple or cheap. And of course, there are risks involved.
Can You Use A 401 As An Sba Loan Downpayment
Getting the money for a down payment can be one of the most challenging parts of applying for an SBA loan. However, if you have a 401 account, or another approved tax-deferred retirement account with at least $50,000 in it, you may be able to use those funds as a down payment on an SBA loan all without incurring any tax penalties. Heres how.
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Use A Robs To Finance Your Business
The second option you have for using a 401 to start a business is called ROBS, which, as we mentioned earlier, stands for rollovers as business startups. ROBS gives you another way to access retirement funds from a 401, IRA, or another eligible retirement account without having to pay income taxes and early withdrawal penalties.
Compared to a 401 loan, a ROBS offers more flexibility for entrepreneurs because theres no obligation that you have to remain employed in order to use this financing option. In fact, with a ROBS, you cannot use a retirement account from a current employer. This being said, however, doing a ROBS is also more complicated than taking a loan from your retirement plan.
To explain, with a ROBS, you first have to structure your business as a C-corporation. Then, you have to set up a new retirement plan under the C-corp. At that point, you can rollover the funds from your existing retirement plan into the new companyâs retirement plan. Finally, your new corporation sells stock to the retirement plan, and the company uses the proceeds from the sale as a source of capitalâwith one catchâyou canât pay ownersâ salaries from these funds.
Robs Can Fund Franchises
Senior tax analyst Dick O’Donnell notes that many people think 401 business financing is particularly suited to funding franchise startups. Franchises are typically associated with successful businesses that have proven track records, while a small mom-and-pop startup business leans more toward speculation and sentiment than concrete statistics.
Should You Use Your Investments To Fund A Business
The situation, however, may look different when deciding whether or not to use your investments to launch a business.
Taking out an unsecured small business loan without a financial track record could leave you paying a much higher interest rate and it could exceed the return that you might anticipate on your investments, Buhrmann argues. In this case, you could be better off selling some of your investments to jumpstart your new venture. When we say this, we mean investments other than your retirement fund. While you can withdraw money from your 401 to start a business, you should first consider the implications that would have on your retirement if your business fails. Plus, you’ll have to pay income taxes and a 10% penalty if you withdraw money from a 401 or IRA before age 59½.
And if you’ve already taken out a small business loan and want to pay it off using your investments? “If you took out a loan while inflation was high and the loan had a locked rate, it would make a lot of sense at that point to pay the loan off using your invested capital,” Cannon adds.
The key, he says, is to determine if the annual interest rate you are paying on a loan exceeds the average return on your investments in a year.
Making A Hardship Withdrawal
Depending on the terms of your plan, however, you may be eligible to take early distributions from your 401 without incurring a penalty, as long as you meet certain criteria. This type of penalty-free withdrawal is called a hardship distribution, and it requires that you have an immediate and heavy financial burden that you otherwise couldnt afford to pay.
The practical necessity of the expense is taken into account, as are your other assets, such as savings or investment account balances and cash-value insurance policies, as well as the possible availability of other financing sources.
What qualifies as hardship? Certainly not discretionary expenses like buying a new boat or getting a nose job. Instead, think along the lines of the following:
- Essential medical expenses for treatment and care
- Home-buying expenses for a principal residence
- Up to 12 months worth of educational tuition and fees
- Expenses to prevent being foreclosed on or evicted
- Burial or funeral expenses
- Certain expenses to repair casualty losses to a principal residence
The home-buying expenses part is a bit of a gray area. But generally, it qualifies if the money is for a down payment or for closing costs.
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Tap Your 401 To Start Your Farm Business
I know that many of our readers currently have jobs not related to farming, however, you would like to leave that job and start farming on a full-time basis. One of the major drawbacks to doing this is the lack of capital. However, many of you could have a substantial asset that you could tap to create the working capital needed to get started in farming. This asset is your 401 plan.
Here is how it works:
- You will need to create a corporation .
- This corporation will establish a 401 plan.
- You will roll over your current 401 at the old employer into this new 401 plan.
- The new 401 plan will then purchase shares in the new corporation and will become an owner of the corporation .
- The money put into the corporation becomes the working capital that the corporation can use to purchase equipment, plant crops, etc.
There is no limit on how much stock the 401 can purchase. This means, that unlike borrowing money from a 401 plan which is limited to $50,000 or cashing in the plan and paying taxes and a 10% penalty on the funds received, you are able to maximize the amount of capital you can put into the farm business.
As in all cases, you need to discuss this with your tax advisor. Also, the article does refer to a company that has helped do several hundreds of these transactions.
What To Consider Before Using A 401 To Start A Business
If youre thinking of taking money out of your 401 to start a business, ask yourself a few questions:
- When do I expect to turn a profit?
- What will my income and expenses look like?
- When will I be able to make up for the lost money that I borrowed from the 401?
- Do I have a backup plan?
- How will this affect my overall finances?
- What are the financial implications of borrowing from my 401?
Answering these questions can help you carefully consider this option and understand what the consequences will be.
Read Also: What Happens To 401k Money When You Quit
Who Is Eligible For Individual 401 Plans
A common misconception about the solo 401 is that it can be used only by sole proprietors. In fact, the solo 401 plan may be used by any small businesses, including corporations, limited liability companies , and partnerships. The only limitation is that the only eligible plan participants are the business owners and their spouses, provided they are employed by the business.
A person who works for one company and participates in its 401 can also establish a solo 401 for a small business they run on the side, funding it with earnings from that venture. However, the aggregate annual contributions to both plans cannot collectively exceed the IRS-established maximums.
What Is 401 Business Financing
401 business financing, also known as Rollovers for Business Startups , is a small business and franchise funding method. ROBS allows you to draw money from your retirement account in order to start or buy a business without incurring an early withdrawal fee or tax penalty. This is not a loan ROBS gives you access to your own money so you can build the life you want without going into debt.
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Using Retirement Funds With Startup Loans
While the current average 401 balance has never been higher, according to Fidelity, it is only $123,900. This amount may not be enough to start or buy the business you want, and you may need additional financing. Small Business Administration loans are a popular source of financing for businesses however, many business owners also utilize personal funds to help get the financing they need.
You can utilize your retirement funds as part of your financing needs. Most lenders will require 20% of the loan package as a down payment. However, if you have sufficient funds available without significantly impacting your retirement account, you can lower your total debt and monthly payments by adding additional money down.
Robs Compliance & Audits
ROBS plans are held to compliance standards with the IRS and the United States Department of Labor, and ROBS plans may be audited. Those plans not in compliance with government regulations could face tax penalties and fines.
While the risk of an audit is rather low, an audit by the government will check for the following:
- That the retirement plan was set up correctly: Also, that your business is set up in the correct corporate structure .
- All annual filings have been completed and submitted: Among these is IRS Form 5500.
- You meet all employee requirements: This means you are an employee of the organization, providing eligible employees access to the companys retirement plan, and all necessary plan documents are provided to your employees.
Using a ROBS provider will provide you the needed support in ensuring you are meeting compliance requirements.
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