Cares Act 401 Early Withdrawals
The CARES Act contains a provision allowing those who are under age 59 ½ to take a distribution from their retirement plan while working, waiving the 10% penalty that would normally be associated with this type of distribution.
The distributions are still subject to income taxes, but these taxes can be spread over a three-year period. You can re-contribute some or all of the money taken via this route over a three-year period and avoid some or all of these taxes.
These distributions require that you document that COVID-19 has impacted you or a family member. This means that you or a family member has contracted the virus or that you or a family member has been financially impacted by COVID-19 in ways that might include a job loss or reduced income. For a 401 plan, the ability to take these distributions is not automatic, your employer needs to adopt this as a provision of the plan.
Borrowing Money From My 401k
It may seem like an easy way to get out of debt to borrow from your retirement accounts for DIY debt consolidation, but you can only borrow $50,000 or half the vested balance in your account, if its less than $50,000. You wont face a tax penalty for doing so, like you would with an out-right withdrawal, but youll still have to pay the money back.
And unlike a home equity loan where payments can be drawn out over a 10-to-30-year period, most 401k loans need to be paid back on a shorter time table like five years. This can take a huge chunk out of your paycheck, causing you even further financial distress. Borrowing money from your 401k also limits the ability of your invested dollars to grow.
Paying off some of your debt with a 401k loan could help improve your debt-to-income ratio, a calculation lenders make to determine how much debt you can handle. If youre almost able to qualify for a consolidation or home equity loan, but your DTI ratio is too high, a small loan from your retirement account, amortized over 5 years at a low interest rate may make the difference.
Cashing Out Your 401k While Still Employed
The first thing to know about cashing out a 401k account while still employed is that you cant do it, not if you are still employed at the company that sponsors the 401k.
You can take out a loan against it, but you cant simply withdraw the money.
If you resign or get fired, you can withdraw the money in your account, but again, there are penalties for doing so that should cause you to reconsider. You will be subject to 10% early withdrawal penalty and the money will be taxed as regular income. Also, your employer must withhold 20% of the amount you cash out for tax purposes.
There are some exceptions to the rule that eliminate penalties, but they are very specific:
- You are over 55
- You are permanently disabled
- The money is needed for medical expenses that exceed 10% of your adjusted gross income
- You intend to cash out via a series of substantially equal payments over the rest of your life
- You are a qualified military reservist called to active duty
Also Check: How To Know If You Have 401k Money
Your Taxes Are Withheld
When you prematurely withdraw from your retirement account, your first consideration should be that youll have to pay normal income taxes on that money first. This means youre losing at least roughly 30 percent of your savings to federal and state taxes before additional penalties.
Even if you only have $10,000 you want to withdraw, consider that youre automatically giving $3,000 of your cash to the government. In the best case scenario, you might receive some money back in the form of a tax refund if your withholding exceeds your actual tax liability.
How To Take Advantage Of The Rule Of 55
While it’s usually advisable to keep money in your plan as long as possible, there can be times when tapping it makes financial sense. For example, if you’ve lost your job at 55, you’ll still have to cover certain costs. The rule of 55 could also be a deciding factor for those who are considering early retirement.
As mentioned previously, 401s from previous employers and IRAs are not eligible for the rule of 55 exception. However, the money in these other qualified retirement accounts can become eligible by rolling them into your current 401.
This is a big deal, as it could help you access a much larger savings pool before age 59 ½. Of course, since only active employees can do rollovers, you’d have to square all this away before you leave the job.
Note: Check to make sure your employer allows 401 rollovers, since not all of them do.
In any case, you should think about the timing of your withdrawal, both in the context of your age and in the fiscal year. Taking an early withdrawal in the year that you retire will increase your taxable income. This might bump you into a higher tax bracket. So waiting to make your first withdrawal until at least the next January after your job exit could save you money on your tax bill.
Read Also: How To Get Money Out Of 401k Without Penalty
What Are The Penalty
The IRS permits withdrawals without a penalty for certain specific uses, including to cover college tuition and to pay the down payment on a first home. It terms these “exceptions,” but they also are exemptions from the penalty it imposes on most early withdrawals.
It also allows hardship withdrawals to cover an immediate and pressing need.
There is currently one more permissible hardship withdrawal, and that is for costs directly related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
You’ll still owe regular income taxes on the money withdrawn but you won’t get slapped with the 10% early withdrawal penalty.
Series Of Substantially Equal Payments
If none of the above exceptions fit your individual circumstances, you can begin taking distributions from your IRA or 401k without penalty at any age before 59 ½ by taking a 72t early distribution. This allows you to take a series of specified payments every year. The amount of these payments is based on a calculation involving your current age and the size of your retirement account.
The catch is that once you start, you have to continue taking the periodic payments for five years, or until you reach age 59 ½, whichever is longer. Also, you will not be allowed to take more or less than the calculated distribution, even if you no longer need the money. So be careful with this one!
Recommended Reading: How To Get Money From 401k After Retirement
Next Steps To Consider
This information is intended to be educational and is not tailored to the investment needs of any specific investor.
Fidelity does not provide legal or tax advice. The information herein is general in nature and should not be considered legal or tax advice. Consult an attorney or tax professional regarding your specific situation.
Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC, Member NYSE, SIPC, 900 Salem Street, Smithfield, RI 02917
Youll Be Assessed A 10% Penalty
First, the IRS will issue a 10% penalty immediately upon withdrawal of any funds taken out before turning 59Â½.
This penalty is taken out immediately from the amount you withdraw from your 401.
Say you take out $10,000 from your employer-sponsored 401. You speak to your HR department or your plan administrator and take all of the necessary steps. By the time the money reaches you, youâll only have $9,000.
The IRS implements this penalty to make you think twice about shorting your retirement too early.
Recommended Reading: How Does 401k Show On Paycheck
If Im Eligible Should I Take A Distribution From My 401 Or Ira
Even with the new rules in place, its still advisable to exhaust most other resources, such as emergency funds or other easily accessible forms of savings, before tapping into your retirement accounts.
But if you are considering taking a distribution from your IRA or 401, think through the following first.
If My Company Is Acquired By Another Company What Happens With My 401
In many cases, the company that bought your company will just move your 401 over to its 401 administrator, and you’ll continue to pay into the account as you did before. In other cases, your account may be kept separate for a time. You might need to open a new 401 account with the new employer and roll the existing funds into that. If your plan is terminated, you can still roll over your funds into an IRA.
Also Check: Can I Convert My 401k To A Roth Ira
Debt Relief Without Closing My 401k
Before borrowing money from your retirement account, consider other options like nonprofit credit counseling or a home equity loan. You may be able to access a nonprofit debt management plan where your payments are consolidated, without having to take out a new loan. A credit counselor can review your income and expenses and see if you qualify for debt consolidation without taking out a new loan.
8 MINUTE READ
If You Get Terminated From Your Job You Have The Option Of Cashing Out Your 401 However This Is Probably Not The Smartest Move
Image source: Andrew Magill.
If you get terminated from your job, you have the ability to cash out the money in your 401 even if you haven’t reached 59 1/2 years of age. This includes any money you’ve contributed and any vested contributions from your employer — plus any investment profits your account has generated. However, you may face a 10% early withdrawal penalty from the IRS for cashing out early, so this might not be the best option. Here’s what you need to know to make an informed decision about your 401 after you’re no longer with your employer.
How to cash out and the implications of doing soThe procedure for cashing out is usually rather simple. All you need to do is contact your plan’s administrator and complete the necessary distribution paperwork. However, there are a few things you need to keep in mind, especially regarding the tax implications of cashing out.
Unless your 401 is of the Roth variety, all of the money you withdraw will be treated as taxable income, no matter how old you are or the reason for the withdrawal. So, even if you are older than 59 1/2, it’s important to consider how cashing out will affect your tax status for the year. If you have a large 401 balance, cashing out could easily catapult you into a higher tax bracket. Your plan provider will be required to withhold 20% of the amount you cash out for taxes , and will also file a form 1099-R to document the distribution.
Recommended Reading: Where Should I Put My 401k Money After Retirement
How To Build Wealth With Compound Interest
First, we need to explain what compound interest is. With compound interest, unlike simple interest, you invest your money, earn money, and then invest that new money you made along with the sum you started out with, and that adds up year after year. Especially with considerable sums in your 401.
This is called compounding. Wealth is something that you create and compounding is a great way to do so. You can make money from both guaranteed and non-guaranteed investments while using compound interest. You can even take care of your retirement money this way.
Every year you can invest your money to make more money next year and save up for your future. These are the secrets of building wealth with compound interest. There are a lot of investment options out there that you can take and compound interest is closely related to retirement topics.
For example, if you invest $1,000 now in a guaranteed investment, years down the line your annual compound could go up to a couple of thousand dollars.
Before you start, you need to have a good foundation. Getting rid of consumer debt is your first step. If you dont pay off your credit card balance, you will be charged interest on your entire owning balance, including the interest added to your account the previous month. This will just make your credit card debt bigger.
After all, avoiding debt is one of the habits of millionaires.
Should You Take Either Distribution
The ability to take money out early can be a great safety net if you must retire before age 59 1/2. If you can wait to find another job, a part-time job, or work as a consultant, it might make more sense to let the money continue to grow tax-deferred well into your 60s.
Taking funds early could decrease the long-term value of your portfolio, particularly if your initial years of retirement are bad ones for the market.
If you expect to live a long life, early distributions could put your future income at risk.
Make all portfolio timing choices with care. Taking taxable retirement plan distributions during a year when you owe less in taxes can be a smart way to reduce your total payment.
On the other hand, taking money out of your plan during a higher income tax year could create needless tax headaches. Work with a tax advisor, a financial planner, or your retirement plan administrator to create a withdrawal strategy that will work for you over time.
Don’t Miss: How Much 401k Should I Have At 35
How To Liquidate A 401
Liquidate your 401 and you could face penalties. However, itâs possible to liquidate your 401 without penalty and gain access to your funds when you need them.
A 401 is a great way to save for retirement. The majority of Americans use 401s as their primary retirement savings vehicle. Over time, a 401 can amass quite a sum of money from contributions and compounding growth. However, with such a large amount of money saved, some may be tempted to liquidate their 401 and enjoy the fruits of their labor.
You canât withdraw funds from an employer-sponsored 401 while youâre still working for that company. But you can liquidate the funds in your 401 through early withdrawals, hardship withdrawal, 401 loans, and a few other circumstances the IRS permits.
The IRS provides tax breaks for the funds that are contributed to 401s. They also impose penalties should the funds be taken out earlier than allowed.
Nevertheless, it is possible to liquidate a 401 and access the funds when you need them.
Calculating The Basic Penalty
Assume you have a 401 plan worth $25,000 through your current employer. If you suddenly need that money for an unforeseen expense, there is no legal reason you cannot simply liquidate the whole account. However, you are required to pay an additional $2,500 at tax time for the privilege of early access. This effectively reduces your withdrawal to $22,500.
There are certain exemptions that you can use to take a penalty-free withdrawal however, you will still owe taxes on that money. These are for immediate and heavy financial needs that constitute a hardship withdrawal. Such a withdrawal can also be made to accommodate the need of a spouse, dependent, or beneficiary. These include:
- Certain medical expenses
- Home-buying expenses for a principal residence
- Up to 12 months worth of tuition and fees
- Expenses to prevent being foreclosed on or evicted
- Burial or funeral expenses
- Certain expenses to repair casualty losses to a principal residence (such as losses from fires, earthquakes, or floods
You likely will not qualify for a hardship withdrawal if you hold other assets that could be drawn from, such as a bank account, brokerage account, or insurance policy, in order to meet your pressing needs.
Recommended Reading: How Much Should I Put In My 401k
Loans Versus 401 Distributions: Which To Choose
With these new rules, the lines between a 401 loan and withdrawal can become a bit blurred. Both let you access up to $100,000 of your retirement funds penalty- and tax-free, but there are slight differences.
If you take a withdrawal:
Repayment isnt required.
Theres no withdrawal penalty.
It will be taxed as income initially, though you can claim a refund if you pay back the distribution in three years.
You have tax options.
Can You Withdraw Money From A 401 Early
Yes, if your employer allows it.
However, there are financial consequences for doing so.
You also will owe a 10% tax penalty on the amount you withdraw, except in special cases:
- If it qualifies as a hardship withdrawal under IRS rules
- If it qualifies as an exception to the penalty under IRS rules
- If you need it for COVID-19-related costs
In any case, the person making the early withdrawal will owe regular income taxes year on the money withdrawn. If it’s a traditional IRA, the entire balance is taxable. If it’s a Roth IRA, any money withdrawn early that has not already been taxed will be taxed.
If the money does not qualify for any of these exceptions, the taxpayer will owe an additional 10% penalty on the money withdrawn.
Recommended Reading: Can You Set Up Your Own 401k
Making An Early Withdrawal
As pointed out previously, under commonplace circumstances, the regulation requires you to be at least 59 ½ years old to withdraw funds from your plan without any penalties and without having to terminate your employment.
If you want to make an early withdrawal of your assets, youll most likely have to make reimbursements for both taxes and tax penalties, depending on the circumstances. Distinctive situations are specified at the beginning of this article.
When Should You Make A 401 Early Withdrawal
Considering the 10% penalty, financial planners often advise taking an early withdrawal from your 401 as a last resort. Since penalty-free withdrawals are available for a number of financial hardships and situations, plan participants who take an early withdrawal with a penalty are often in serious financial straits.
Ive seen people take withdrawals for a number of reasons, Stiger says. Everything from a childs tuition to a spouses burial expenses the hope is that distributions are used for larger, more unexpected expenses like medical emergencies, keeping a home out of foreclosure or eviction, and in a down period, putting food on the table.
Taking an early withdrawal can make sense if you are able to take advantage of a penalty-free exception, use the Rule of 55 or the SEPP exemption. But might make sense to exhaust other options firstcheck out these 10 ways to get cash now. And keep in mind, contributions to a Roth IRA can always be withdrawn without penalty if youre truly in a bind.
You May Like: Can I Use My 401k To Pay Off Irs Debt